Human Health

Diabetes, signs, symptoms, treatments and prognosis

For some a disease and for others a healthy but imposed lifestyle. The truth is that diabetes is a condition that, for the sufferer; it means that you should take more care of yourself and be aware of what is coming at all times.

For some people results easier than for others. This is because, you can be born with diabetes or, in the worst case; diabetes can develop. Hence, it is considered more a disease than a congenital condition. If you want to know all you need to know about diabetes, here at HealthcareCareers.guru we tell you.

What is the diabetes?

Diabetes is the excess of glucose in the blood due to an insulin deficiency that allows us to convert it into energy for our body. And it's called deficiency because the body does not produce insulin or because it does not use it properly.

But how does glucose get into the blood and where does the insulin comes from? Well, glucose is nothing more than sugar in food. When the enzymes in our stomach process food, glucose passes into our bloodstream.

This is where the insulin-producing organ, the pancreas, enters into function. The insulin produced by the pancreas is responsible for transporting glucose to all the cells in our body in the form of energy.

However, when there is insulin deficiency; glucose accumulates in the bloodstream and ends in different areas of our body. Also, we do not get the energy we need to carry out all the daily activities of our day to day.

Different types of diabetes

Although only diabetes types I and II have been considered for a long time; there is also a lot of talk about type diabetes III today.

Type I diabetes

It’s the diabetes that cause that the pancreas simply stops producing insulin. It is detected at an early age; so patients suffering from this type of diabetes are known as insulin dependent.

Children who are diagnosed with type I diabetes carry, for them; a normal life. It is true that they have many restrictions and a singular diet; different even to what their family can follow. But they end up getting used to their lifestyle.

However, only 5% of the world population suffering from diabetes; falls into the category of type I, since the vast majority of people suffer from type II diabetes

Type II diabetes

It is detected in adults. Usually, people who develop type II diabetes; they never had insulin deficiency before. This causes that adapting to their new lifestyle is something usually difficult.

Type II diabetes is when insulin deficiency occurs. Although the pancreas is capable of producing it; at some point, it stops acting correctly on glucose, which causes accumulation of sugar in the blood.

In addition, the pancreas, noticing that glucose is not entering the cells; it tends to work more quickly, producing even more insulin until it reaches wear.

This syndrome of tired pancreas has as a consequence that, in time; the amount of insulin that is produced is much lower.

Type III diabetes

Although it is not 100% proven and/or approved. Type III diabetes is a reality for many. Although there is some disagreement as to what it is precisely.

In 2015, the investigations carried out to find a cure for Alzheimer's; showed that all patients suffering from this disease have a clear deficiency of insulin at the level of brain cells.

Hence, Alzheimer's; it has been considered a different type of diabetes.

On the other hand, some foundations and organizations of medicine; they have cataloged type III diabetes to the influence that the sick person produces on their environment. The person suffering from diabetes is associated with an earthquake; where those closest to that person are the most affected.

This is due to the psychological wear that occurs in people living with someone who has diabetes; the symptoms are very clear and constant:

  • Feelings of impotence
  • Pressure for responsibility
  • Suffering without the right to reply

All this leads to a pathology that affects all areas of the person's life: BIO-PSICO-SOCIAL.

Hence, despite the opinions of international organizations; many people are talking about type III diabetes as a reality that should not be ignored.

Symptoms and signs of diabetes

Fortunately, diabetes is a disease that can be detected very early if we pay special attention to the warning signals that our body gives us.

The first thing you should know is that diabetes is a silent disease in principle. People do not usually consider the first symptoms of diabetes at all; after all, it seems "normal". However, if you suffer from the following symptoms, go to the doctor! They are clear signs that you have diabetes.

You urinate a lot

The excess of sugar in the blood and all the sugar that is accumulating more and more; it must be discarded by some part of your body. That is why people who have diabetes and do not control it; often go to the bathroom to urinate many times. It's the way their bodies get rid of all the glucose in the bloodstream.

Very thirsty all the time

As a result of the above symptom, from urinating so much your body feels dehydrated. Somehow you have to replace that liquid. After all, we are 70% water.

What at first may seem a kind of cycle in which the more water you take more urine; what your body is really doing is getting rid of the glucose in your blood, not all the water you drink.

You are constantly hungry

The energy that your body should get through food never comes. After all, insulin is not transporting glucose to the cells.

Your body translates this lack of glucose as famine, but; the more food you eat, the more blood sugar levels rise and the diabetes condition worsens. Hence, more severe symptoms appear.

Tiredness / Depression

Feeling reluctant at any time of the day is a clear symptom of diabetes. There is no energy in your body, no matter how much you feed yourself and stay hydrated; if you continue to lead a lifestyle in which you do not get glucose; soon you will begin to feel tired.

Blurry vision

The excess of sugar in the blood damages the small blood vessels of our body in principle; it can damage even the heart!

But the first ones to be affected are those of our eyes. When there is a considerable rise in sugar; you may experience how your vision is clouded for no reason.

Your wounds do not heal fast

If at the slightest cut you usually bleed a lot and even your wounds become infected very easily; then you have diabetes

There are two groups of cells that actively work when we have a wound. A group is responsible for sealing the cut, hence a crust forms.

The other group is responsible for keeping microbes and bacteria at bay during this repair process. At least, that's how a person's body without diabetes works.

A person with diabetes has "distracted or stunned" cells; so the microbes easily enter through any type of cut. Therefore, you should pay special attention if each time you brush your teeth you bleed.

Insensitivity in the feet and hands

The clearest symptom is the loss of feeling in the hands and feet. People with diabetes that are not controlled; tend to have the nerves of these extremities completely damaged or blocked.

If you constantly lose feeling in your hands and feel that little "tingling" then you may have diabetes.

Diagnosis of diabetes

Fortunately, the diagnosis of diabetes is very simple and the results of this simple test can rule out or ensure immediately if you suffer from diabetes.

Generally, two tests can be done. One in which the person is pricked in the finger and a little blood is drawn; and another that can also be done with a blood test.

Both tests can be done at any time of the day and do not require prior preparation.

If at any time of the day a person has more than 200 mg/dl; then you can be sure that person has diabetes.

On the other hand, there is a slightly more complex value, which is 126 mg/dl. This can mean two things:

1. That the person has recently eaten too much sugar

2. Or that has an insulin resistance

The second case is an early detection of type II diabetes that appears in adults. So, maybe; a second examination is recommended in some cases. But if that person has been showing all the symptoms and signs of diabetes; then it can be taken for granted that it does.

Control of diabetes and blood glucose

Fortunately, and thanks to the advance of science; controlling diabetes is not a problem. The treatments are becoming friendlier and; despite being able to control it, doctors actively continues in the search for a cure.

But the best of all this is, that the best way to control diabetes; is improve the quality of our life through a well-structured diet.

Here we present these 5 foods with a low glycemic index and that will help you to control the levels of sugar in the blood.

Citric fruits

Vitamin C is necessary for repairing tissues. By not having that innate ability due to insulin deficiency, a great way to compensate is by eating fruits with lots of vitamin C such as lemon, orange, and grapefruit. In addition, these three fruits are composed of soluble fibers; which will help to maintain lower blood sugar levels.

Dark green leafy vegetables

They represent the best option to eat ad nauseam without worrying about increasing your weight and provide many essential nutrients for energy.

Berries

During the summer, you can choose to eat many fruits of this family. It is the high season of harvest and you will surely find great offers.

Salmon, tuna, and trout

Fish rich in omega 3. You don’t have to think that you should only eat plants, meats are also allowed, and they are one of the most delicious options on the market.

Grains

Even if you do not suffer from diabetes, you should eat whole grains for their great benefits to our body. These foods help prevent diabetes and, in case of suffering it; they compensate for all the deficiencies of the organism due to the deficiency or absence of insulin.

Alcohol and its influence on diabetes

The most advisable thing for a person suffering from diabetes is not to drink alcohol. Alcohol causes hypoglycemia, that is; lowers blood sugar levels.

Due to the low sugar diet and the constant medications that a person with diabetes must take; alcohol is counterproductive from both perspectives.

Although this can be solved with a prior consultation with the doctor and always having on hand the medication planner; if you know how to have fun without drinking, that will always be the best solution.

Now that, if you decide to drink; keep in mind that alcoholic beverages with a lower index are the ones you can drink without major worries. Always at slow sips, so that the levels of alcohol in the blood do not affect much the rest of your body.

Smoking and its relationship with diabetes

Smoking increases the risk of heart disease, however; other side effects attacks there, where diabetes has made us more vulnerable.

From injuries to the eyes, nerves, and kidneys; smoking is one of the worst addictions that a person who has reached certain age can have; if she/he is diagnosed with type II diabetes.

Smoking is a bad habit. You must do everything possible to eliminate it. Although it is a very strong addiction; you can overcome it with the help of your relatives, doctor, and friends.

Pharmacological treatments for diabetes

The list of medications to treat diabetes is really broad, and all at some point are used, always depending on how the disease has evolved.

It is necessary to have a medication planner. It is not just about injecting insulin to compensate for the work that our pancreas does not do; many other factors influence.

Although it is best to go to a doctor to learn more about these medications; here is a list of possible drugs that you will begin to familiarize yourself with if you or a family member is diagnosed with diabetes:

• Metformin

• Insulin

• DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptina, Vidagliptina) and;

• GLP-1 analogues (Exenatide and liraglutida)

However, what you should keep in mind at all times is that, when it comes to diabetes; the pillars to deal with this condition are divided into four groups:

1. Those who control blood pressure

2. Aspirin

3. Medications to control cholesterol

4. And those who give insulin

Non-pharmacological treatments of diabetes

Of course, in addition to the diet and medicines mentioned above; there are other alternatives to deal with diabetes and that the patient must follows.

In fact, people who do not suffer from diabetes should follow this type of non-pharmacological treatment; after all, they focus on leading a healthier lifestyle.

What makes us think that sometimes, type II diabetes; it is caused by lack of physical activity.

Physical activity for diabetes

The main exercises to which a person with diabetes should aim are those that are in charge of improving flexibility, resistance and strength. A clear example of this type of training would be: weights, swimming, and aerobics.

However, it is important to take certain precautions before starting the exercises.

• The first thing is do don’t exercises when the action of insulin is at the highest level

• Also do not inject the insulin there in the adjacent area that you plan to work during the exercise

• You should always check your blood glucose levels before you start

Control of sugar intake

Of course, the most important care for a person with diabetes is to control the intake of foods that contain glucose.

It can be as simple as taking a diet soda without sugar instead of a traditional one; but every detail counts.

Just as there are 100% recommended foods if you suffer from diabetes; There are others that your doctor may prohibit you. However, these foods should not be completely suppressed.

Go to your doctor and respect the meal plan at all times.

Weight loss for diabetes control

One of the leading causes of premature death in people suffering from diabetes are heart attacks and strokes.

The loss of help to fight bad cholesterol, high blood pressure and; in general, other complications that are associated with diabetes when it is not treated correctly.

Have diabetes and expose yourself to suffer from it; is linked to leading a careless and sedentary lifestyle. For that reason, weight loss is one of the primary objectives that must be achieved; whether or not you suffer from diabetes.

Surgical intervention as an alternative to cure diabetes

With the different advances that have been made to this day in the struggle to find the cure for diabetes; many surgical procedures are gaining strength in the medical profession.

Thanks to their results, patients have been able to reduce the symptoms of diabetes and lead a better lifestyle.

The Bariatric Surgery, the Artificial Pancreas and the Transplantation of Islets of the Pancreas are closer nowadays than though five years ago. We are stat talking about a cure.

Although there is still controversy regarding many of these processes and, especially for bariatric surgery, a psychological intervention is needed; all in order to protect the mind of the patient who will lose weight drastically.

Especially the use of artificial organs. Many scientists are beginning to experiment with printing organs; so we still have a long way to go, but much more to wonder about.

Learning to live with diabetes

Living with diabetes cannot be classified as living a "normal" life, but this is due to the definition of normal that exists today. Actually, people without diabetes should lead a healthier lifestyle.

Many foods and many recreational activities involve actions that are not the healthiest for our body. Tabaco, liquor, and junk foods; all of them are a clear example of what you should not consume and even then you do it.

Having diabetes in that sense is "positive", because you will begin to lead a life away from all those toxins. Of course, doing it because it is the only option left; for some people, it can be depressing.

But do not be discouraged! If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, take advantage of that obstacle and use it as a stepping stone to push yourself towards a new lifestyle. A healthier lifestyle, full of exercise, healthy food and; more organization.

And if you live with a person who has been diagnosed, do not forget to inform yourself and support he/she at all times. People with this disease often feel like a burden in some cases; remind that person that it is not a burden, but simply needs to take care of himself/herself a little more.

References:

  1. Diabetes | Yale Health
  2. Diabetes Education Online
  3. ¿Qué es la Diabetes tipo 2?
  4. Free Tools and Resources to Help Patients Manage Their Diabetes
  5. Diabetes Symptoms
  6. Early Diabetes Symptoms: Common Signs of Type 1 and Type 2
  7. Type 2 diabetes: Symptoms, early signs, and complications
  8. Diabetes symptoms: Signs of type 1 and type 2 diabetes


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